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Recent research published in various journals of neuroscience world-wide has demonstrated that the generation of new neurons can take place in a number of areas of the human brain. The ability to generate new neurons in adult life has been named neurogenesis.

Research on neurogenesis has been progressing since the 1960s and achieved a breakthrough, in 1998, with publications by Gerard Kemperman of The Salk Institute, La Jolla CA, stating that neurogenesis, in the human brain, can be induced under enriched living environmental conditions.

Researchers at the University of Regensburg, Germany, found that neurogenesis, or the appearance of new neurons, can be greatly enhanced, when individuals switch to an enriched living environment. On the other hand, researchers at Princeton University, New Jersey, demonstrated that individuals living in stressing conditions suffer from a clear inhibition in their ability to generate new neurons.

These important results have been published in the Journal of Neuroscience 1998 and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA. 1998. They consistently demonstrated that neurogenesis could be modulated; that is, the generation of new neurons can be activated by certain factors and restrained by other factors.

The field of neurogenesis is an encouraging one, because of its implications in developing new strategies to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as: MSA, Shy-Drager Syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. If the brain areas, affected in the above diseases, could be induced to generate new neurons, the symptoms characterising each disease could be greatly diminished.

Neurogenesis research, published in mainstream journals of medicine and neuroscience worldwide, in the last five years, has substantiated and confirmed that new neurons can be generated in various areas of the adult human brain.

These results have been validated by advanced technology on brain-imaging and radiolabeling of neuronal DNA nucleotides. Through these methods, it has been possible to provide conclusive evidence, at a molecular level, that the generation of new neurons effectively occurs in the adult human brain.

These discoveries now undermine, or invalidate, the previous neuroscientists’ dogma stating that, after birth and during lifetime, the adult human brain cannot generate new neurons. It was initially thought that the total pool of human neurons, in any individual, was determined and fixed at a very young age.

When a medical discovery or an advancement in science can be translated into a specific drug, or product that can be marketed world-wide, there will be an immediate incentive to promote it and spread the knowledge about the discovery that gives the rationale for using the drug.  If the discovery relates to the cancer preventive effect of vitamin D, for example, the dissemination to the medical community, about this new finding, will be backed and supported by the various manufacturers of Vitamin D.

When the discovery cannot be translated into a marketable item, the knowledge about its benefit will remain restricted to those who have access to the specialised scientific journals that have published the research.

 The knowledge that new neurons can be generated in the human brain and be induced to enerate, through an enriched living environment, has so far remained restricted to the few who have access to the journals of neuroscience that have published these results.

Because a real enhancement of human brain neurogenesis cannot be achieved with the use of a drug or any other form of marketed item, very little has been done to disseminate this information to doctors and clinics.

The only alternative, to help this knowledge to reach the many who could benefit from it is a charitable endeavour, with the sole aim of attaining an improvement in the quality of human life.

Human brain neurogenesis is a subject that concerns every human being because, with ageing, everyone’s brain starts to deteriorate, to loose functionality, and to suffer from memory loss. All of these occurs, because the former balance, between neurons emerging and neurons dyeing, has switched to neuronal loss.

Human brain neurogenesis can be effectively induced, through exercise, learning, nutritional programmes, clean air, mineral water, avoiding pesticides, dietary interventions and many other environmental factors, presently under research.

The research results on neurogenesis, are coming from the field of strictly orthodox neuroscience, utilising the most advanced and sophisticated scientific methods and equipment available today.

It should not therefore be confused with, or categorised as, an alternative medicine discovery or as any form of unproved or non scientific complementary medicine method.

Our charitable, non-profitable efforts, includes the translation into various languages, of all relevant material about neurogenesis research, and the periodic publication of a printed neurogenesis research newsletter.

The printed newsletter, as well as all the material from the web site, is at present and will be in the future, available entirely free of charge to everyone interested in the subject.

Our launching of the web site, will be followed by the publication of printed newsletters and the supplying of reprints of research articles on neurogenesis.

It will also include the publication of results on neurogenesis from clinics, and other institutions involved in exercise programmes,  as well as nutritional and environmental interventions.

Landmark Research Publications on Neurogenesis

Nature Neuroscience 2, 266 - 270 (1999)
Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus
Henriette van Praag1, Gerd Kempermann1, 2 & Fred H. Gage1

Living Conditions in the different experimental groups: (Top) Cage for an enriched environment (86 x 76 cm). Enrichment consisted of social interaction (14 mice per cage), stimulation of exploratory behavior with objects such as toys and a rearrangeable set of tunnels and running wheels for exercise.
(Bottom left) Cage containing running wheel for voluntary physical exercise (48 x 26 cm
(Bottom right): Standard housing cage (30 x 18 cm

NATURE | VOL 417| 2 MAY 2002|
Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells
Hongjun Song*, Charles F. Stevens* & Fred H. Gage

Differentiation of adult neural stem cells in a dened medium without serum. a, Proliferation of GFP adult stem cells in the presence of FGF-2. Cells were cultured on laminin-coated substrates in the presence of 2.5 mM BrdU and 20 ng ml21 FGF-2 for 36 h, and stained for BrdU and nestin. An arrowhead marks a nestin BrdU2 cell. Scale bar, 50 mm. DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. b, c, Differentiation of GFP adult stem cells cultured on laminin-coated substrates (b) orwith neonatal hippocampal neurons and astrocytes (c). Cells in six-day cultures were stained for markers for neurons (MAP2ab), astrocytes (GFAP), oligodendrocytes (RIP), or immature cells (nestin), respectively. An arrowhead marks a GFAP and GFP astrocyte. d, Quantication of six-day cultures. Data shown are mean values ^ s.e.m. from four to eight experiments in parallel cultures. Signicant differences from the control group (laminin)

Scientific American. May 1999
New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain
Contrary to dogma, the human brain does produce
new nerve cells in adulthood. Can our newfound capacity lead to better treatments for neurological diseases?

Gerd Kempermann and Fred H. Gage

GRANULE CELL DEVELOPMENT in an embryo is thought to occur through the steps shown in green. A totipotent stem cell, able to give rise to any cell in the body, produces early descendants that include still unspecialized stem cells committed to producing cells of the brain (1). These committed cells later yield “progenitor” cells destined to make only neurons (2) or only glial cells (which promote neuronal survival). Ultimately, neuronal progenitors spawn granule cells in the hippocampus (3) or other kinds of neurons elsewhere in the brain. Steps 2 and 3 now appear to recur throughout life in the human hippocampus.

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